The Gocheok Skydome is an all-weather sports complex intended to serve as a stronghold of development of the south-west region of Seoul. The narrow and odd shaped site tightly constrains the accommodation and layout of an international standard-sized baseball field and other neighborhood sports facilities including soccer football, basket ball court required by the program.
The stadium is a concrete structure and the metallic dome is supported by steel structural system with inner and outer rings balanced by 32 rib trusses. A transluscent teflon roof system supported by the inner ring introduces daylight in to the main field. The monitor windows along the inner-ring trusses introduces as much natural ventilation as another measure to conserve energy. In order to protect neighbors from the high level of the loud noise during baseballl games and other performances, double layered sound insulation curtains for ceiling and windows with sound-absorbing glass pains..
In addition to baseball related facilities and the dome is also utilized as a multi-purpose assembly hall for political or cultural events such as EXO or BigBang concerts. Swimming pool, physical exercise facilities within the dome serves the welfare of the residents in the community.
The program calls for an advanced welfare center for handicapped in the community: The welfare center intends to be a wide open facility to the community, rather than a closed or isolated one. While the “L” shape-building protects the center from the busy street, it also encircles the well defined back yards open to the nature at the south. Additional feature to protect the center from the traffic noise from the busy highway is the glass curtain wall at the north.
An easy and comfortable ramp way at the main atrium leads to all the important treatment and therapy facilities on each floor, and to the major hall on the –B1 level, where aqua-rehabilitation exercise facilities, auditorium and dining hall are located. A wide rampway with very easy slope connects the –B1 level and the backyards on the ground level where one can enjoy well groomed gardens, nature in the mountain, as well as playgrounds of different kinds.
The original program called for demolition of the existing Law School Library to be replaced by a state-of-the-art library. Although the existing library was old and small, it was the first building in the campus donated by a private donor which has been a symbol of the Law School for a long time. In order to preserve the symbolic value of the old building and the “placeness“ of the plaza in front of it, the new building was laid out in “ㄷ” shape enclosing the plaza to become the major space of the new building, or the atrium with a glass roof. The pseudo-Greek style portico of the old building also remains inside the atrium as a memory device.
The dual layered glass windows serve as a sound-insulation and at the same time as a device to control solar energy for energy conservation.
Ulsan Agricultural & Marine Products Distribution Center intends to response to the rapidly changing logistics distribution system in Ulsan and the south-east region of Kyungsangnamdo. The center aims at creation of a place where producers and consumers meet and communicate in direct contact. The center also aspires to serve as a family-type shopping center and provide with a one-stop service connecting producers and consumers at one place. An environment-friendly eco-place and other places for social activities such as lecture, exhibition, wedding, yoga, fitness are also planned to serve as a hub for daily life of the community members.
The primary functions of gathering, delivery/shipping, direct sales and other support facilities are assembled in a way to improve efficiency and flexibility: Cold chain system and HACCP(Hazard Analysis & Critical Control Point system) are introduced and a modular system ULS (unified logistics support) is also adapted with strict separation of freight and pedestrian.
The Garden Five project was conceived as a shopping/cultural complex at the north-west suburb of Seoul to accommodate many machinery, tools, miscellaneous retail shops and stores along the Cheonggye-Cheon river when they were forced to be relocated for the sake of the ambitious “Cheonggye-Cheon Restoration Project” of the Metropolitan City of Seoul in 2003. The Garden5 “Works“ is one of the three buildings: “Life”, a large scale shopping mall; “Works“ or, sales/office and work shops; and “Tool“, retail shops of various tools consisting the complex.
Garden5 “Works” is an environmentally friendly production/retail complex consisting of five(5) buildings: the main building, or the sales/office/support building at the city side; and four production wings spread out like fingers into the open nature along the Jangji-Cheon River. At the junction of the main building and the production wings, there is a huge atrium where the two functions, sales and production, are merged. Information is exchanged and sales and production activities are interface each other.
The simple but powerful image of the building symbolizes development toward the future and aspires to be an impressive landmark for passersby. In contrast to the boldness of the main facade, the conspicuous horizontal lines and regulated order of human scale, resulting from repetition of the same modular units, offer the production wings a friendly feeling and sense of stability. The “production fingers” are widely stretched out into the nature so that natural light and ventilation are introduced into the work space for comfortable and healthy working environment.
Gupo Library Project was to renew and expand an existing library to make it a cultural nodal point of the western region of Busan, especially to serve as a special library for children.
In response to the natural land formation of the site and to accommodate the public hiking trail that runs through the middle of the site, the library is divided into two building blocks or two functional zones at the lower part: reading and education facilities at the south side of the trail for better view and solar access, and multi-purpose auditorium and dining hall at the north of the trail to protect against the noise from the neighboring school.
The trail is naturally integrated into the building and with an indoor stair that serves for vertical circulation of the building, creating a positive interaction of the building with the nature of the Baeg-Yang San Mountain.
Exterior walls at the north and south respond to different surroundings: While the glass wall at the south facilitates natural lighting and ventilation, the hard shell at the north cuts off the noise from the nearby school.
A 3x3 basic module was adapted for floor plans for flexibility in room size change and other requirements. The atrium at the center of the building introduces ample natural light to create a comfortable and alive ambience in the library. A separate entrance is provided for the auditorium, restaurant, and children’s library for an easy access of general public, especially the restaurant which is directly accessible from the trail. Variation in shapes and sizes of the space at the children’s library is expected to induce imagination and attract a great deal of interest among children.
Located in the middle of densely populated apartment complexes in the north east region of Seoul, this sports and cultural complex for the youths offers an open space and various outdoor sports facilities for the residents, especially the youths, including a soccer filed, tennis courts, gate ball, as well as an indoor tennis courts.
The 4-story-high atrium is the major space of the main building that accommodates swimming pools, gymnasium, exhibition hall, studios, computer animation and game rooms. The vertical garden at the atrium also plays a role of an extension of the "green network" created along the axis to the riverside and serves as a junction of many accesses from different sides of this little urban park.
As the headquarter building for the Jogye-jong denomination, a huge and complex program requires to accommodation of office spaces, museum, performance hall, and a conference hall. A large portion of the functions are underground to minimize the profile of the building above the ground level.
Since the main building of Jogyesa Temple, a symbolic icon of the Korean Buddhism, is a traditional building, it was decided early that the memorial hall should be a simple backdrop to flatter the main building. A simple monotonic glass wall facade was therefore adopted to respond to this main principle. The modern design of this building selected through a competition signifies the trend and intention to modernize the conservative traditional Buddhism in Korea.
Opening on this glass wall was intentionally limited to avoid noise and excessive solar gain in summer, a dual glass wall systm is introduced. The air space between the glass wall and inner window-walls intends to provide better air circulation in summer and function as solar space in winter.
The Alberione Center of the Daughters of St. Paul is the publisher where Pauline sisters spread the Good News by means of books, media, and Bible education. The site, originally a part of the Convent compound, was subdivided by the new street that runs north and south through the middle of the compound.
The shop front on the ground floor is a bookstore. The main entrance and the main lobby on the second floor are accessible through the arcade along the street. The Floor plan consists of two layers. While the thin east layer accommodates the core and smaller offices, it frees up the west layer to provide for large open spaces and the flexibility in floor planning to accommodate ever changing requirement. The Center is connected to the convent by an underground corridor underneath the street.
The long rectangular floor plan resulted into a long west facing facade opened to the panoramic view to the Dobong-san Mountain. Double glazed glass wall and vertical louvers were extensively utilized in order to capture the view and to control the late summer afternoon sunlight and to protect from street noise.
Pohang Technopark is an organization to support traditional industries in Pohang region to transform into a knowledge-based companies, or an incubator to stimulate and nourish newly born technological companies in the region.
The master plan was rendered to accommodate such functions as HQ building corporate support facilities, policy research center, R&D-Type enterprises and research institutes, venture buildings, and housing.
HQ and annexed #1 venture building was constructed at the phase one and the second, third, and fourth venture buildings followed. The venture buildings typically accommodates amenities Lounge, meeting room, video conference room, multipurpose auditorium, training room, equipment building room, publicity and exhibition room, etc. In order to accommodate the characteristics of a new venture business, the venture buildings employee a modular system to make it easy to expand or reduce the size depending on the business conditions.
The unique shape of this 2002 Worldcup Stadium resembles "orum", or a mound/crater created by parasitic volcanic activities. Located on a gentle down slope toward the sea on the axis connecting Hala Mountain, Nogosan mountain, this low keyed and low profiled stadium helps to preserve the magnificent view from the city and the stadium toward the sea. Design of the stadium intends to be harmonized with nature and its environment so that it becomes a part of wholesome environment, as many examples of vernacular architecture do. The stadium satisfies all the FIFA requirements including media facilities, accessibility for disabled, and safety regulations, among others.
The most powerful element of this unique stadium is the roof that looks like a giant wing of a Herculean falcon ready to soar into the sky. The huge roof frame is a crescent shape, suspended by three steel cables each from six gigantic masts, tallest among them are 95 meters above the deck level. The entire roof system is counter balanced by the two massive concrete anchors at each end. The roof is covered by a teflon membrane using a flying mast, ridge and valley cables.
A Worldcup Soccer game is not just a game but a cultural festival for 30 billion fans worldwide. The Jeju Worldcup Stadium for 2002 was a place for celebration of this global festivity with a unique local identity. It was selected as one of the most beautiful stadium at the time by the Washington Post.
Hard surface is sparingly used for the outdoor spaces around the stadium. Permeable asphalt concrete is utilized where a hard surface is absolutely necessary. Liberally utilized for paving instead are soft and porous volcanic stone and ash abundant in the island for the huge plaza and grass blocks for parking spaces. Many other indigenous fauna and motifs are used for landscape.
The contemporary museum is located on a wooded hillside overlooking the porcelain-producing town of Kwangju. While the museum has a complex programs, it aspires to become the art and cultural center of the community.
It features a two-story barrel-vaulted lobby and four galleries, one of which is devoted to the tradition-based ceramics and ink paintings. Nearby on the landscaped grounds are five additional studios for sculptors, ceramic and installation artists, as well as a dormitory for artists-in-residency and a shed-type housing with electric and wood-fire kilns. The site is on a narrow valley surrounded by hilly mounds in “U“ shape and a stream flows where the valley ends. The intent of the design is to take maximum advantage of the natural environment by harmonizing to the existing scale and utilizing the elements of the surrounding nature.
This project was to build a cluster of town houses in suburban area with a main theme of “restoration of the relationship between man and nature”. Sun light, wind, vegetation and other natural resources are introduced into the private court yards of each and every units, which not only enhances the energy performance of the houses but also relates them to the land. Hierarchical arrangement of the spaces of gradient scales from the public highway to the community, cluster and finally to the individual units makes it possible to experience an easy transition from artificial to natural environment.
The 600Th Anniversary Memorial Hall, Sungkunkwan University aims to become the symbol of the university and to serve as the Oriental and Korean studies center of the world. The program naturally called for many small rooms and very large spaces alike to accommodate complex functions of various tasks. Small rooms such as lecture rooms and laboratories are stacked together on one side and the large spaces on the other side of a tall atrium, through which natural light and fresh air are freely introduced to all the rooms and spaces inside.
Another important task was not to dominate but to harmonize with the traditional buildings that are small in scale and very delicate in detail. in order to respond to this issue, all the facades of the building are divided into small scales with finely defined details. It was intended to represent the time line of the 600 years of long history of the University.
Sitting on a steep hilly site, the building consists of two clusters surrounding a circular plaza that serves as the main access to the building and as an amphitheater for small concerts. One of the two is for music school and the other for art school accommodating a 300-seat performance hall and small practice rooms, and studios along with regular lecture rooms. Each of the two clusters spread out its wing to reach the music school and the art school just below the slope.
In contrast to the existing sculpture-like building near-by, the new building is rather finely detailed contemporary with delicate glass windows and granite clad.
The historic city of Kimhae experienced a fast economic and cultural growth in the past two decades. The city desires to pass along the fruits of development to its citizens for better quality of life by improving cultural infra-structure of the city. A sports complex is one of the long-term project to achieve such aspiration.
Straight ahead of the symbolic main entrance plaza sits the main stadium with a baseball stadium and two indoor gymnasiums on each side. The master plan also intended to make the complex as a city park with abundant green spaces and lakes. The construction of the project is postponed indefinitely because of the financial reason due to the economic recess in the 1999
Layout of the school was strictly dictated by the characteristics of the site and its surroundings. It was an irregular shaped parcel was 4-meter lower than the main road on the north and was surrounded by low residential buildings tp the east and south. To take a maximum advantage of the given constraints while accommodating the full program and other requirements, the “L” shaped main building was abutted to the north and its edges were jagged compromising with the property line. Playground sits at the lower part of the site to open up the view and invite sunshine and ventilation into the classrooms. In order to fully utilize the limited space, the gymnasium rooftop was extensively utilized as an outdoor classroom, rest area, and a small protected playground for lower class students.
Daewoo Electronics Company urged determination to have its own world-class headquarter building to demonstrate its achievement as the company joined ranks of the famous global companies in the middle of 1970’s. The company desired to build a monumental building to pronounce its success in the global business. It planned to build a landmark which would be a model of environment-friendly high-tech building of the new age.
A superstructure with giant outriggers supports 36 floors of column-free-spaces and a heliport pad on the trianguar pyramid stretched out from the superstructure. The building is enveloped with glass cladding to emphasize the transparency of the building and the company. Long slits at the bottom of a story-high glass panes are open to air for ventilation, which makes the elevation of the building look like a slightly-open giant glass louvers.
Unfortunately, this project was not realized due to financial problems of the company.
The Korea Computer Building is a mixed-use building: The lower 9 floors are for business/commercial use and the top 16 floors (10th-25th) are for residential use, or apartments parceled out to individual owners.
In order to secure privacy and independence to the residential apartment units entrances and elevators to the apartments are completely separated from those of commercial use. The 6th floor that is open to air meant to serve as a public space for apartment residents with a sky garden and other amenities. Center of the residential tower is hollowed out to make a vertical atrium so that fresh air can be introduced on each and every floor of the tower by means of smoke-stack effect and that daylight and fresh air introduced. A view-elevator open to the front yard and beyond provides comfortable ride with a scenic view to improve the value of the residential units.
This project is an attempt to translate an old traditional temple buildings into a modern temple with contemporary architectural languages and building materials. Multi-leveled terraces are introduced to negotiate with the very steep site as in the layout of old traditional temples. Inside or behind the retaining walls of the terraces are emptied to accommodate major spaces and many other functions required by the client. The open court yard surrounded by main buildings in "ㄷ" shape are open to Guryongsan Mountain enjoying the beautiful natural surroundings. The sound proof wall in a traditional window patterns protects noise from street in order to secure a quiet and revered atmosphere inside.
The main objective of this project was to layout 30m wide and 90m long with 12m high mass of welding plant and other supporting facilities while establishing a smooth and functional relationship among the facilities.
A deep green open space in a shape of quadrant-circle separates the plant and the office building, which protects office and amenity buildings from the noise and vibration of the welding/press plant.
A triangular prism-shaped truss columns were used with the two sides of the triangular trusses extruded outward from the wall. The two exposed sides of the prism are enveloped with transparent glass panes to introduce more daylight into the plant and adding vertical elements on the elevation of the plant for variation, which, otherwise, can be boring and monotonous.
The Research Center Consists of the main building and research buildings arranged in "L" shape surrounding an open court-yard. The main building has two wings separated, or connected, by the main atrium at the center of the building on the main lobby level. Natural light penetrates through the atrium to reach the lobby which connects auditorium and dining hall at the basement level. All the research departments are housed in two research buildings connected to the main building which can be easily identifiable. Future extension will be easily accommodated by adding additional independent building connecting to the main building.
Conceived as a one-stop-service to the business man who travels around, the 2.4 million square feet building accommodates many functions related to trade and traveling including merchandise exhibition, business consultation and negotiation in addition to accommodation facilities such as hotel and in-city check-in/customs facilities for air travelers. As a means to resolve the constraint of narrow site, the complex and spacious functions are stacked around the 6-story-high atrium on the elevated artificial ground. The atrium mimics an outdoor space so that the offices on the upper floors has a feeling of facing out door with ample natural lighting.
Taking advantage of the natural land formation of the site, the site was graded into two levels: lower southern half for playground and the upper northern half for buildings while the level difference between the two was utilized as beachers for the playground.
The main entrance of the main building is at the head of the strong north-south axis at the center of the lot. Two wings of classrooms are spreaded to both side of this axis. The entrance is extended to the central atrium and special class rooms, library, cafeteria and other school facilities are clustered surrounding two courtyards at the both side of the atrium. At the tail of the axis is a gymnasium that accommodates basket ball courts, swimming pool and other indoor excercise facilities.
While a traditional material brick is used for cladding, the elevation was divided into sections to avoid monotony and boredom with a gable shape of entrance at the center.
The project was originally constructed for the ‘88 Seoul Olympic Village for athletes and later parceled out to individual buyers as apartment housing. The site is on a historic green axis connecting Namhan-sansung, a historic mountain fortress, and the Momngchon remains, an ancient city wall toward the Han River. A candy cane-shaped glass-vaulted community center stands at the juncture of two-pronged stream at the center of the site. Rows of environment-friendly apartment clusters stretch out in radial shape with the community center as a focal point, while street side apartment buildings line up along with the street in a gesture to assimilate with the city street system.
Low building coverage as well as a series of interlocking green spaces and street parks throughout the village help to provide the residents with a comfortable and healthy green environment. Natural slope and the layout scheme secure open view line toward the Han River for most of the apartment, which further enhances the green amenity of the village. Diversity in apartment plans allows a wide range of selections for the buyers.
Being located in the middle of densely populated residential area, a large portion of this Presbyterian Church, especially the main chapel, was compelled to go underground in order to preserve open space and to provide residents with more quiet and comfortable living environment. Only a lobby, staircase bell tower, class room, and other incidental facilities are on the above ground level. The “L” shaped building is wide open with glass windows toward the enclosed courtyard, while the peripheral walls are solid brick claddings to protect its neighbors from unnecessary noise and business. In order to make it a comfortable experience to access the underground chapel, natural daylight was actively introduced to the whole access route from entrance and along the staircase leading to the main hall. Main cladding material is red brick with decorative brick bonds in most facade to enhance the visual appeals.
The University Hall consists of three building blocks developed on the sloped site along the main university street: cafeteria, cluster of students activity rooms, and a small theater. The building blocks are sitting on different levels negotiating with the slope but are inter-locked together and connected by steps, corridors and colonnades to connect the plaza in front of the building and the nature in the back.
Appearance of each block are characteristic expressing different functions of its own. With its inter-locked masses with well defined diverse functions and brick cladding, the University Hall is a environment friendly gathering place of the university.
Located at the center of the campus, the Student Hall constitute the heart of the campus along with the library near-by. Taking advantage of the hilly land formation of the site, the main lobby is on the second floor at the street level between the cafeteria at the ground floor below and the third and upper floors where rooms and other facilities for students’ body and extra curricula activities are accommodated. The cafeteria on the lower ground level is directly accessible from the main plaza at the front which is open toward the green open space in front of the library.
Segregation of entrances on different floors not only clearly defines different functions but also makes it possible to ease the congestion created by a crowds movement.
The basic concept for this project is to harmonize with the existing natural terrain of the site with a minimum disturbance. In order to the levels of the existing terrain, a skip-floor system is adopted. As the layers of the floors climb up the hill, layers of numerous long terraces are build up in front elevation to make it a dominant characteristic element of the house. The wood cladding for the terraces further added up the “horizontality“ to match with the mountain background. Large windows behind the terraces not only bring in plenty sunlights into the house but also bring in the nature of the environment into the house and the commanding view.
Seoul Garden Hotel is a five star hotel located at the beginning of the Mapo Boulevard, the main artery road from Kimpo International Airport to downtown Seoul. Many large scale residential and commercial projects are lined up along this gateway to Seoul these days, but the Garden Hotel was the only conspicuous building on the street when it was completed in 1980. It may be worthwhile to mention that it was the first tourist hotel designed by a Korean architect. Import of building materials were strictly prohibited and the only domestic building materials available at the time were limited to very basic products, such as, for instance, brick and concrete.
The three lower floors are occupied by large public spaces including a banquet room and restaurants while the upper 12 floors accommodate 417 guest rooms.
This house is designed for a 3-generation-family with three different levels of floors for each generation. The major space in this house is the family/dining room where daily life of each generation overlaps.
The “L” shape plan is arranged against the street to protect the house from the street at the north and along the property line at the west, enclosing. While the solid walls at the north and west protect the house from its surroundings, the house is wide open toward the inner court yard or south-facing backyard to bring in the sunlight and for the inner space to communicate directly with the and out-space.
The inner courtyard is alo accessible directly from the main gate at the north-west corner of the lot to the inner court yard and then to backyard experiencing a smooth transfer of spaces of different scale.
There is a tall major space at the center of this house and rooms, around which rooms and floors are organically arranged.
Vertical walls and horizontal slabs not only determine the size each space, but also become a device to establish the relationship with the outside, thereby creating a framed view to the outdoor scenery. Additionally, long-protruded canopy in front of the tall space, series of wide curtain wall, and heightened floor levels are devised to elevate the effect.
It is the intention of the architect that white monotonic color be extensively used for interior and exterior in order to emphasize the pureness of the structure and for this structure stand out from the backdrop.